Scientific name: Carica papaya. Name in different languages:- English: Papaya, Papaw, Pawpaw, Tree melon. Bosnian: Papaja. French: Papayer, papaya, Papayer commun. Portuguese: Mamao, mamão. Spanish: Carica papaya, fruta bomba, lechosa, mammon, papaya. Hindi: Papita. Sanskrit: Erand karkati. Bengali: Papeya. Marathi: Pappayi. Malayalam: Papaya.
The Papaya that we grow in our homes belong to the Caricaceae family and its Scientific name is Carica papaya. There are many varieties of it and more than its medicinal value, its considered for its fruit. Papayas are best when it comes for digestion. The tender raw papaya fruit along with the seeds are mashed and the juice is taken as the medicine.
The enzyme ‘papain’ helps in the digestion process. The ripe papaya fruit is rich in Vitamin A, B, & C. Ripe papayas can cure wounds also. The seed of the its fruit is good to destroy abdominal worms. The tender leaves of papayas, mashed and the juice extracted are found to be a good medicine against Dengue fever. The cultivation of papayas are gaining good popularity now days. Different varieties of papayas are cultivated like the long type, the dwarf varieties, and fruits that have different colors. Pusa giant, Solo, Honey dew are new varieties that are cultivated. To extract enzymes, C.O.2 &C.O.5 varieties of papayas are used .
Papayas grow best in tropical regions, while a cold climatic condition does not suit papayas. It should not be grown in places where there is water logging. Seeds are sown in polythene covers filled with soil. 2 seeds are sown in one cover. Equal amount of powdered cow dung should also be added to the soil. Since the seeds of papayas are small, they should be sown only 2 cm deep and the young plants are replanted after 2 months. Dig a pit half a meter deep and fill it with soil and animal manure and then the polythene cover is removed carefully and the young plants are planted. Since the stems are not strong, it is advised to give support to the plant. Water should be given in adequate quantities. Only the female trees bear fruits and the male plants must be cut and removed. Watering should be done in summer , for the plants to bear fruits. This plants starts flowering and bears fruits in 5 months time, and a well maintained tree gives up to 30 fruits in an year. The fruits are plucked and used while the skin turns yellow. It is ideal to replace papaya tree, that are 3 years old with new ones.