Plant growth depends on a number of conditions. They include:
Type of soil and type of plant
The type of soil in which the plant is grown in one of the most important factors affecting its growth. Another factor is the type of plant you want to grow. For instance, a plant growing in a tropical climate will not grow well in a desert climate or soil. So each plant requires a specific type of soil for proper growth.
Unless you live in a forest, proper fertilization is required for the proper growth of a plant. The natural nutrients in the soil get depleted with time, no matter how fertile it was in the beginning. In a natural ecosystem like the forest the depleted nutrients get continuously replenished by natural elements. But in the case of indoor plants and backyard farming, use the right fertilizers when and where required to keep the plants properly growing.
Sunlight is the main factor propagating photosynthesis. So for a plant to manufacture food properly, sunlight is an essential ingredient.
Sunlight also affects the growth rate and life span of a plant.
Any plant requires proper irrigation to keep it alive. Even desert plants require water to survive, which is why they store water in their stems for future use. That does not mean you should overwater a plant. Both over watering and under watering is equally dangerous. While water logging might catalyses the growth of some plants, it is destructive for others. So make sure you know your plants properly before watering them.
Ventilation is essential for plant growth, especially indoor plants. Make sure the room is airy enough for the plants to breathe. Remember, just like any living organism plants too require oxygen to survive. Only difference is, plants require carbon dioxide too for photosynthesis