Aquaculture helps the Indian economy as it is a medium of earning foreign currency through export. Fish is an important dish in Indian food. It has a good value in the domestic market too. It gives employment to a lot of people. The pisces family constitute of almost 20,000 varieties. There are marine as well as fresh water fishes. The fresh water lakes of kerala are home to a 100 varieties of fish. The fishes, both marine and fresh water are of 2 types: ‘Osteichthyes’ or the bony fishes and ‘Chondrichthyes’ or the cartilaginous fish. Around the world, 11.6 tons of fish are caught yearly.
Two types of fishes are found here; the ones found in seas and the ones found in lakes. The nets and mode of catching fish are also different for both. Sardines, Mackerels, Prawns, Perches, Carangids, Elasmobranch etc. are marine fishes. In the lakes we usually find species like Rohu ,Katla, Tilappia, lobsters, etc. 80% of the fish are caught from the seas while only a small percent are grown. But most of the freshwater fishes are cultivated. Fishes are cultivated in fresh water bodies by erecting bunds in it. Cultivation of fresh water fish is getting high popularity these days. This is a good source of income and many people are turning into aqua culture. Breeding in such cases is done by injecting hormones or by artificial means. Also standardization, Grey –out technology have brought a lot of changes in aqua culture. Sea fish are caught by using different types of nets. But in fresh water lakes and aquaculture farms, nets, traps, spikes etc. are used.
In a year around 60 tons of fish are caught, which forms a form of income to many families. Thorough knowledge is necessary for doing aqua culture.