Scientific name: Sesamum indicum. Name in different languages:- English: Beniseed, Gingelly, sesame, Semsem. Armenian: Shooshmayi good, Shushmayi kut. Bulgarian: Сусам, Susam. French: Sésame. German: Sesam. Italian: Sesamo. Portuguese: Sésamo, Jergelim. Polish: Sezam indyjski. Russian: Kunžut, Sezam, Kunzhut. Swedish: SesamSanskrit: Tila. Hindi: Safed Ti. Assamese: Tisi. Bengali: Til, Marathi: Til, ashadital, tīḷ, bariktil. Telugu: Nuvvulu. Tamil: Ellu, Yellu, Yellu, Cheddi. Kannada: Acchellu, Ellu. Malayalam: Ellu, Karuthellu, Yelluchedi.
Sesame is a medicinal plant with the botanical name Sesamum indicum. It belongs to the Pedaliaceae family. Sesame is also known as gingelly. The seeds of sesamum indicum are used as medicine and condiment. Sesame is found in different varieties; the ones with black seeds, white seeds and also in brown, red etc. Sesamum indicum is mainly used to treat various reproductive disorders in women like delayed menstruation, and low menstrual cycle. Sesame is given to breast feeding mothers to enhance the production of breast milk. The sesame plant is very attractive and the flower of sesame comes in various colors and also they are seen attached to the stem. The fruits are 2 cm in length and are full of sesame seeds. The fruits if not plucked at the right time may burst out spilling the seeds.
Sesamum indicum is used as a medicine to cure the tridhoshas in Ayurveda by consuming equal amounts of sesame and triphala. Black sesame if taken with goat’s milk can cure diarrhoea. Sesame oil enriched with amla enhances the growth of hair and prevents hair loss. A decoction (kashayam) prepared using sesame leaves, sesame seeds and jaggery to cure intestinal diseases.
Sesamum indicum can be cultivated in any type of soil with moisture content but cannot be cultivated in soil with salinity. The varieties like A.C.V-2, O.M.T-1165, Tilarani etc. are varieties that can be grown in houses. The land should be ploughed thoroughly while cultivating sesame. The soil has to be raised as platforms, 1 meter wide and 20 cm high and animal manure should be added to the soil at the ratio of 50 kg per 1 cent. 20 gm of sesame seeds can be sown in 1 cent. The seeds should not be sown deeply and after sowing, the top soil should be added and pressed. To keep the seeds stay in place, water should be sprinkled carefully. The saplings have to be placed properly at a distance of 15 cm and the crowded saplings should be removed accordingly and planted elsewhere. Proper watering should be done to the sesamum indicum plants at the time of bearing fruits. Once the fruits dry up, the plant should be up rooted, dried in sunlight and seeds are taken from the fruit. The sesamum indicum seeds have long shelf life and can be used for cultivation as well as home and medicinal needs.