Scientific name: Curcuma longa. Name in different languages:- English: Turmeric, Common turmeric, Indian saffron. Arabic: Uqdah safra, Kurkum, كركم, كُرْكُم Armenian: Toormerik, Turmerig. Bulgarian: Kurkuma, Куркума. Dutch: Geelwortel, Kurkuma, Koenir, Koenjit, Tarmeriek. French: curcuma, Curcuma long, Souchet des Indes, Safran des Indes, Terre-mérite. German: curcuma, Kurkuma, Gelbwurz, Indischer Safran. Italian: curcuma. Hungarian: Kurkuma, Sárga gyömbérgyökér. Indonesian: Daun kunyit, Kunyit, Kunir. Japanese: Ukon, Tamerikku,ウコン,うこん. Korean: gang-hwang, keol-ku-ma, Kang-hwang, Teomerik, 울금은, 울금, 강황, 심황, 투메릭,터메릭. Malay: Kunyit basah. Nepali: Haldi. Polish: Ostryż długi, Kurkuma, Kłącze kurkumy, Szafran indyjski. Portuguese: Açafrão da Índia, Açafrão da terra, curcuma. Romanian: Curcumă. Sinhalese: Kaha. Spanish: Cúrcuma, turmérico, Azafrán arabe. Swedish: Gurkmeja. Turkish: Hint safranı, Safran kökü, Zerdeçöp, Zerdeçal, Zerdecube. Ukrainian: Куркума, Kurkuma. Sanskrit: Haridra. Hindi: Haldi, हल्दी. Assamese: Halodhi. Bengali: Halud. Marathi: Halad, हळद. Urdu: Haldi, ہلدی . Telugu: Pasupu, Haridra. Tamil: Manjal, mañjaḷ, மஞ்சள். Kannada: Arisina, Arishina. Malayalam: Manjal.
Turmeric is an important and inevitable part of any household, be it cooking or cosmetic or medicine. Turmeric has the unique capacity to destroy germs. Raw turmeric mixed with neem leaves ground in to a paste, is applied on the body to keep it germ free and so this paste is used while giving bath to patients having measles (rubeola) and chicken pox (varicella). It is an excellent medicine for diabetic patients. There are many varieties of turmeric plants which differ in the colour and quality. The variety of it is used as a spice is known by the binomial name curcuma longa. The wild turmeric (kasthuri manjal) has light yellow color. A lot of other varieties like prathiba, prabha, shobha, kanthi, varna etc. It can be grown even in pots, if there is space constraint. The rhizomes of turmeric are used for propagation.
Soil with good moisture content is ideal to grow turmeric. The turmeric rhizome used for propagation should weigh at least 15 gm. Animal manure and ash are mixed well with soil, and while adding in pots, only 250 gm of the manure is needed. One rhizome is planted in a pot. The rhizomes are planted 5 cm deep in the soil and should be covered with green leaves. When the plant attains one month growth, again powdered cow dung and ash should be added and mixed with soil. Watering should be done appropriately.
When the stem and leaves turns yellow, showing ripeness, it is time for harvest. When we remove the soil and check the bottom of the plant, we can get an idea about how much yield is got. The harvesting should be done within 10 months and there are varieties that can be harvested within 8 months. Usually turmeric plant is not prone to any pest infestations, but they may get the diseases like rhizome rot. In such cases the plant should be completely uprooted and burnt off.